- Individualist / Libertarian. Public and common goods are often not worth providing.
- Conservative. Responsible citizens should privately provide public goods out of moral conviction.
- Liberal. Government should provide public goods.
- Socialist. Government should provide public and private goods.
I am particularly interested in explaining the Conservative position here, which is less ideologically or philosophically clear than the others. As has been suggested, Conservatism isn't primarily or originally a philosophical idea. Hayek calls it a defense of the "extended order", which evolved via some social form of natural selection, and is more complex than its critics appreciate.
In America, I think conservatism is more than that: it's the Yankee ideal of taking responsibility for the commons, involvement in the many community organizations that de Tocqueville wrote so much about, and the idea that one has a moral duty to account for externalities. More on this in a future post.